Voltage. Connecting in series splits **the source voltage** in proportion to the individual impedances of the loads. Because the voltage shared among the components in a series circuit is identical to the voltage provided, this assures that the reading is correct. A simple way to remember this is V = I * R where V is voltage, I is current and R is resistance.

Power. The power delivered by a voltage source into a series circuit is equal to the product of the voltage and the current drawn by the load. This is true whether the load is resistive or not. If the load is reactive (e.g., an electric motor), then the power also includes the energy stored in the load when it is initially activated. That is, power is rate of change of energy.

Resistance. A series circuit has zero resistance between **any two points** on it. Therefore, there is no way for current to flow through **one portion** of the circuit while another part is being loaded with voltage from the power source.

Ideal Voltage Source. A voltage source in series with a resistor is an ideal voltage source for **any given point** within **the series circuit**. An ideal voltage source cannot leak current and there are no losses due to resistance.

Real Voltage Sources Tend To Have Some Residual Resistance And Losses Due To The Physical Construction Of Voltage Sources.

When two or more components are linked in series, the overall potential difference in the supply is shared. This implies that if you combine the voltages across each component linked in series, the result equals the power supply voltage. For example, if there are three light bulbs all linked in series with a 120-volt source, then the total voltage across all the lights will be 30 volts, and the total power delivered to all the lights will be 180 watts.

In practice, some of the voltage will be lost in connecting up the components, so it's unlikely that it will be possible to get **exactly 120 volts** between the supply and each light bulb. However, if we assume that no more than 10 percent of the supply voltage is lost in connecting up the lights, then we can still calculate how much current will need to be flowing through each light bulb to produce **this 30-volt potential difference** across them.

The total current flowing into all the lights from the supply must equal the total current leaving all the lights back to the supply. So, if we let i be the current drawn by **one light bulb**, then the current out of all the lights must be i. Therefore, i needs to be 30/100 amps = 0.3 amperes.

This means that each light bulb can only draw **20 milliamperes** or less from the supply.

Components linked in series are connected along a single "electrical channel," and each component has the same current flowing through it, which is equivalent to the network's current. The network voltage is equal to the sum of the voltages across each component. Components that connect electrical circuits in this way are called "series connectors."

In electronics, three types of connections can link components together: direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and radio frequency (RF). A DC connection passes a constant current through the circuit forever. An AC connection passes current from one circuit node to the next in accordance with the formula I = V/R, where I is the current, V is the voltage, and R is the resistance between nodes. An RF connection passes current in a circuit only when an RF signal is present at its terminals. In all other cases, it is an open circuit.

Series connections are used extensively in **electronic circuits** because they can reduce the amount of current needed in a circuit while still providing **the same level** of performance. For example, if one were to connect several individual LEDs in series, then only the first LED would light up since the remaining LEDs have **no voltage** across them. Series connections are also useful when trying to protect components from excessive currents, as some components can fail if they are subjected to too much heat or power.

Voltage Sources in Series. Series-aid voltage sources are those that are coupled in such a way that current flows in the same direction in **both sources**. If you look at it here, we have a power supply and current going in **this way**, negative to positive current, and the other voltage here,...

Now, what happens if we connect **these two sources** in series? Well, now we have two problems: 1 Current will flow from the higher voltage source to the lower one 2 There's no way for either current or voltage to go down.

The solution is simple: We need another connection between them! And since we can't have two circuits sharing one side of a branch cut, we need to connect them together outside the phantom center.

In conclusion, series-aid voltage sources should not be connected together and there needs to be at least one other connection outside of **the phantom center**.