As a result, India has established a tsunami early warning center to forecast future events and prepare the administration. Over the years, India's center has evolved into one of the world's most advanced tsunami warning centers. It monitors seismic activity around the globe and issues alerts if it detects an impending tsunami.
Tsunamis are violent waves caused by underwater earthquakes. The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was followed by more than 30 tsunamis that killed over 200,000 people in 14 countries from Indonesia to Chile. No country was completely unprepared for the tsunami, but many officials failed to react quickly enough to warn people away from the sea or move shelters to higher ground.
Indians living along the coast should learn how to respond to a tsunami alert. If you are near the ocean, go to high ground immediately!
The Indian tsunami early warning center is presently supporting 25 Indian Ocean countries, according to his response. This is being carried out under the Ministry of Earth Sciences' O-SMART project. O-SMART is an acronym for Ocean Services, Modelling, Applications, Resources, and Technology.
It is planned to extend the network to include Indonesia by 2013. The Indian Ocean region has a high risk of tsunamis because it lies in the path of major tectonic plates. When one of them shifts, so does part of India or Indonesia. The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and subsequent tsunami killed approximately 200,000 people in nine countries.
In addition to the countries supported by this initiative, other nations that may be included at a later stage are Australia, China, France, Germany, Japan, New Zealand, Russia, Singapore, South Korea, and USA.
Indonesia is one of the most vulnerable countries in Asia to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. There are several active volcanoes in Indonesia, some of which have been responsible for major disasters in recent history. The most devastating event was the Boxing Day tsunami of 2004. It killed over 230,000 people in fourteen countries, including over 120,000 in Indonesia.
Since then, efforts have been made by the Indonesian government to improve tsunami warnings. In 2009, a new national protocol on tsunami warning systems was adopted by Parliament.
This resulted in the founding of the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (formerly known as the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center) to warn people of the possibility of a widespread tsunami. However, the warning system does not monitor local tsunamis. It is designed to alert people of large oceanic earthquakes near the edge of their active tectonic plates.
In addition to issuing official warnings, the center issues "high concern" alerts when significant seismic activity is detected that may indicate an impending tsunami. These alerts are sent to government agencies and other organizations that might need to take action to protect themselves or their communities.
The center is located at the University of Washington's Geophysical Institute, which is part of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. It is funded by the United States Geological Survey and operated by the university.
It is the only major national warning system focused exclusively on coastal earthquakes and tsunamis. Although inland earthquakes can be deadly, they usually cause little or no damage beyond what is done during their immediate aftermath. Thus, most earthquake monitoring is done far from populated areas with the goal of detecting events that could cause harm through surface rupturing or landslide-related debris flows.
Because most earthquakes occur below ground level, the first indication of their presence will be felt as a change in ground movement.
According to experts, Japan is perhaps the most equipped country in the world for a tsunami. According to the New York Times, Japan currently has a network of early warning sensor devices to detect earthquakes on the ocean floor. In several of their coastal cities, seawalls have been erected to guard against tsunamis.
When a massive earthquake strikes off the coast of Japan, it causes the earth to shake but also creates a series of underwater landslides called "tumulists" that spread out from the epicenter at speeds up to 200 miles an hour. The momentum of these tumulists can rise to the surface and build up into large waves if they run into something solid, such as a reef or shoreline. These waves then travel across the ocean towards the mainland.
In 2004, a 9.0-magnitude earthquake occurred near Sumatra, Indonesia. This caused a huge tsunami that killed approximately 230,000 people in eight countries. The wave reached as far as Hawaii with only minor damage. But the biggest threat comes from hidden rocks that break away from the seafloor and create sudden changes in direction for the water. These "rogue waves" are hard to predict but can be spotted by monitoring seismic activity or using satellite images. Countries with small populations living close to the sea should have evacuation plans in place to prevent panic and help people find safety.
Japan has implemented many precautions over the years to protect its people from tsunamis.
Tsunami warnings are issued by the centers and are aired on local radio and television, wireless emergency alerts, NOAA Weather Radio, and NOAA websites (like Tsunami.gov). They may also be sent by outdoor sirens, local officials, text message alerts, and phone calls.
Since tsunamis are driven by earthquakes, you would expect news of an earthquake to go with the tsunami warning. But since earthquakes can happen without being detected by seismologists, they cannot always be predicted. If a large enough earthquake occurs in the right place at the right time, it could cause a tsunami which could destroy any evidence of an earlier quake.
Evidence of an earthquake includes data from microseisms (small scale seismic activity) and infrasounds (below human hearing thresholds). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collects this data through its National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC). They use computer models to try and predict where future quakes will occur using information gathered during previous studies of similar events.
By comparing the effects of different earthquakes (such as small tremors vs. large ruptures), scientists can build a picture of what happens inside Earth when one strikes. This information helps them better understand how powerful an event needs to be to cause major damage or destruction.
Tsunami Warning-Global Receive real-time tsunami warnings, watches, and advisories. The app delivers notifications for the United States, Canada, and all nations bordering the Pacific, Indian, and Caribbean seas using real-time data from NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers. It is free to download and use.
For example, if a tsunami warning was issued for the United States or its territories, the app would display relevant information such as where and when to expect the first wave of water and how high it might be. It would also provide links to official emergency information from federal agencies like FEMA.
The app uses the Internet to send and receive data, so it depends on having an active network connection. If there is no wireless service available or if you lose connectivity for some reason, the app will stop working until you restart it.
You can view detailed information about any warning by tapping on it. This will take you to a page with background information about the event, including the expected arrival time of the next wave and any updated advice from national authorities.
If you are in the area affected by the disaster and feel that danger is imminent, it is recommended that you leave your home immediately. However, before leaving check to make sure that everyone in your family is safe and seek shelter in a sturdy building.