The insurrection of the Protestant elector of Saxony and his supporters overthrew the Interim in 1552. Even the Catholic lords appealed for a durable peace at the Passau discussions in the summer of 1552, believing that the theological conflict would never be resolved. However, the Emperor continued to support the Protestants, while the princes of France and Spain declared against them.
The Peace of Augsburg was an attempt by the German states to find a peaceful solution to their religious differences. The treaty was agreed upon by the German states under the leadership of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, who wanted to settle the religious issues within his empire peacefully so he could concentrate on fighting other wars. The main issue preventing a permanent settlement was the difference between Catholics and Lutherans regarding the nature of the sacraments. While Lutherans believed that the sacrament of marriage must be received by both parties in order to be valid, Catholics argued that it could be received by one party without destroying the sacrament for the other.
In order to bring about a permanent peace, it was necessary for both sides to compromise. Unfortunately, the Lutherans refused to accept any form of Catholicism except for Lutheranism itself. So the only way for the Peace of Augsburg to become permanent was if another war broke out which forced the Germans to fight again with each other's help. This last war didn't happen until 1618 when Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden invaded Germany.
A uprising that lasted from 1524 to 1525 in the Holy Roman Empire's German-speaking territories. The uprising arose in response to the severe loads of taxes and charges imposed on German serfs, who had no legal rights and no way to improve their status. The revolt was led by priests and scholars who published a manifesto calling for a common defense against the oppressive nobles and princes.
The revolt began in Bavaria but soon spread to other provinces where the peasants joined together to fight against their feudal lords. The revolt was very successful - after several months of fighting, most of the regions in which it had begun were still under peasant control. However, the leaders of the revolt were unable to come to an agreement about how to run the country if they should win, so the movement collapsed when some of them went back to serve their masters once again. There were more uprisings in Germany in the years that followed, but they were mostly small scale and short lived.
The German peasants' revolt showed that even though they contributed much money into the royal treasury, the noblemen kept all the power in Germany. The revolt also demonstrated that the people could stand up against those who had power over them.
The Peace of Augsburg was a pact signed on September 25, 1555, between Charles V and the troops of Lutheran princes that formally ended the theological conflict between the two factions and permitted princes in the Holy Roman Empire to select which religion would reign in their principality. The treaty is sometimes called "the peace after Augsburg" because it marked an end to fighting between Protestants and Catholics in Europe after years of turmoil.
In addition to establishing religious tolerance, the Peace of Augsburg also established strict guidelines for the conduct of wars among the states of Germany. It forbade attacks on cities unless they refused to accept Catholic missionaries or gave evidence of heresy and mandated that war must have a legal justification before it could be declared. This restriction prevented conflicts from being used as a way for a ruler to increase his power at other people's expense.
These are just some of the issues that were resolved with the help of philosophers at the University of Wittenberg under Martin Luther's leadership. In addition to debating these topics during weekly lectures, the students wrote many essays on related subjects such as political theology and military ethics that are now found in academic journals around the world.
Luther advocated for the rights of rulers to decide religious policy within their territories even if they were not Catholic. He argued that since God had given authority over religion to princes, they should be allowed to exercise this authority freely without interference from outside forces.
Some of its roots may be traced back to disagreements over the theological settlement granted in the Peace of Augsburg (1555), which allowed both Lutheran and Catholic areas inside the Holy Roman Empire. A Protestant insurrection against Catholic Habsburg authority in Bohemia erupted into a struggle involving all of Europe's major nations. It was one of the most devastating wars in European history, killing an estimated 500,000 people.
The war began when Charles V, who was also emperor of Spain, issued a manifesto ("Protestant Edict") requiring his subjects to adopt the religion of their rulers. The Bohemians were predominantly Protestant, so this decree caused considerable resentment. When Charles attempted to impose his will by force, the rebels fought back. They were eventually defeated at the Battle of Mühlberg in Germany by an army led by Ferdinand I, archduke of Austria; but not before they had killed almost 100,000 men.
The war ended with the Treaty of Nurenberg in Germany, which settled the issue of religious freedom in the empire by creating two large states - one Catholic, one Protestant - where each ruler could decide for himself which faith he wanted to follow. This treaty is often called the "Peace of God" because it ensured that religious violence would never again break out in Germany.
There were other rebellions during this time, but none as successful as the Bohemian uprising.